Impact of Gingivitis on Circulating Neutrophil Reactivity and Gingival Crevicular Fluid Inflammatory Proteins

Helen M Roberts, Zehra Yonel, Alpdogan Kantarci, Melissa M Grant, Iain L C Chapple

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Gingivitis is an extremely common oral inflammatory condition and can be induced in humans using an acute 21-day experimental gingivitis model. Neutrophils are known to be highly prevalent in the gingival crevice during gingival inflammation; however, the effect of gingivitis and the associated biofilm on peripheral blood neutrophils (PBN) is not well characterised. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of inflammation induced by experimental gingivitis and its resolution upon the function of PBN. Fifteen systemically healthy volunteers undertook a split-mouth 21-day experimental gingivitis study followed by a resolution phase of 14 days. PBN function, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release, directional chemotactic accuracy and expression of host mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), were measured at baseline (day 0), on day 21 and on day 35. NET formation and ROS production were significantly elevated at day 21. Chemotactic speed was also elevated in response to bacterial peptide fMLP at day 21. At day 35, ROS production in response to an Fcgamma stimulant, opsonised Staphylococcus aureus, remained elevated. The data presented suggest a lasting biological impact of the experimental gingivitis on PBN function even after clinical symptoms have abated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6339
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 23 May 2022


  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid/metabolism
  • Gingivitis
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Neutrophils/metabolism
  • Reactive Oxygen Species


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