Impact evaluation and economic benefit analysis of a domestic violence and abuse UK police intervention

Yiannis Karavias*, Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay, Christine Christie, Caroline Bradbury-Jones, Julie Taylor, Eddie Kane, Heather D Flowe

*Corresponding author for this work

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This study evaluated the impact and economic benefit of Cautioning and Relationship Abuse (CARA), an intervention which aims to reduce re-offending of first-time low-level domestic violence and abuse perpetrators. The analysis was based on two samples drawn from separate UK police force areas. CARA's impact was assessed using a matched sample of similar offenders from a time when CARA was not available. The matching was based on a host of offender and victim characteristics and machine learning methods were employed. The results show that the CARA intervention has a significant impact on the amount of recidivism but no significant reduction in the severity of the crimes. The benefit-cost ratio in both police force areas is greater than one and estimated to be 2.75 and 11.1, respectively, across the two police force areas. Thus, for each pound (£) invested in CARA, there is an economic benefit of 2.75-11.1 pounds, annually.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1063701
Number of pages13
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 16 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2023 Karavias, Bandyopadhyay, Christie, Bradbury-Jones, Taylor, Kane and Flowe.


  • intimate partner violence
  • evidence-based policing
  • Crime Harm Index
  • economic evaluation
  • batterer intervention program
  • domestic violence and abuse
  • machine learning
  • Psychology


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