Immunotherapy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: from the origins of BCG to novel therapies

Samantha Unsworth-White, Mark Kitchen, Rik Bryan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Supplies of intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the first-line treatment for most intermediate- and high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC), have proven unreliable over the past decade. This review considers the evolution of BCG immunotherapy for NMIBC: from the discovery of the antitumour side effects of tuberculosis and subsequently the BCG vaccine, to recent advances in novel immunotherapeutic agents. We summarize the evidence for alternative options to standard intravesical BCG therapy regimens and describe the potential for immune response manipulating drugs in the treatment of NMIBC. These new agents, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, toll-like receptor agonists and recombinant viral vectors, may provide better options in the management of NMIBC in the future.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFuture Oncology
Early online date12 Nov 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 12 Nov 2021

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Immunotherapy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: from the origins of BCG to novel therapies'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this