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When dormant naïve T cells first become activated by antigen-presenting cells, they express the autocrine growth factor IL-2 which transforms them into rapidly dividing effector T cells. During this process, hundreds of genes undergo epigenetic reprogramming for efficient activation, and also for potential reactivation after they return to quiescence as memory T cells. However, the relative contributions of IL-2 and T cell receptor signaling to this process are unknown. Here, we show that IL-2 signaling is required to maintain open chromatin at hundreds of gene regulatory elements, many of which control subsequent stimulus-dependent alternative pathways of T cell differentiation. We demonstrate that IL-2 activates binding of AP-1 and STAT5 at sites that can subsequently bind lineage-determining transcription factors, depending upon what other external factors exist in the local T cell environment. Once established, priming can also be maintained by the stroma-derived homeostatic cytokine IL-7, and priming diminishes if Il7r is subsequently deleted in vivo. Hence, IL-2 is not just a growth factor; it lays the foundation for T cell differentiation and immunological memory.
Bibliographical note©2020 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.
- memory T cell
- transcription factor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)