Identification of factors mediating the developmental regulation of the early acting –3.9 kb chicken lysozyme enhancer element

P LeFevre, J Kontaraki, Constanze Bonifer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The chicken lysozyme gene –3.9 kb enhancer forms a DNase I hypersensitive site (DHS) early in macrophage differentiation, but not in more primitive multipotent myeloid precursor cells. A nucleosome becomes precisely positioned across the enhancer in parallel with DHS formation. In transfection assays, the 5′-part of the –3.9 kb element has ubiquitous enhancer activity. The 3′-part has no stimulatory activity, but is necessary for enhancer repression in lysozyme non-expressing cells. Recent studies have shown that the chromatin fine structure of this region is affected by inhibition of histone deacetylase activity after Trichostatin A (TSA) treatment, but only in lysozyme non-expressing cells. These results indicated a developmental modification of chromatin structure from a dynamic, but inactive, to a stabilised, possibly hyperacetylated, active state. Here we have identified positively and negatively acting transcription factors binding to the –3.9 kb enhancer and determined their contribution to enhancer activity. Furthermore, we examined the influence of TSA treatment on enhancer activity in macrophage cells and lysozyme non-expressing cells, including multipotent macrophage precursors. Interestingly, TSA treatment was able to restore enhancer activity fully in macrophage precursor cells, but not in non-macrophage lineage cells. These results suggest (i) that the transcription factor complement of multipotent progenitor cells is similar to that of lysozyme-expressing cells and (ii) that developmental regulation of the –3.9 kb enhancer is mediated by the interplay of repressing and activating factors that respond to or initiate changes in the chromatin acetylation state.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4551-4560
JournalNucleic Acids Research
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2001


  • chicken lysozyme

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Identification of factors mediating the developmental regulation of the early acting –3.9 kb chicken lysozyme enhancer element'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this