Hyperthyroidism is a common disorder affecting multiple systems in the body. The cardiovascular effects are among the most striking. The availability of effective treatments for hyperthyroidism has led to the widespread perception that it is a reversible disorder without any long-term consequences. Recent evidence suggests, however, that there may be adverse outcomes. Long-term follow-up studies have revealed increased mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in those with a past history of overt hyperthyroidism treated with radioiodine, as well as those with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormones are known to exert direct effects on the myocardium, as well as the systemic vasculature and predispose to dysrhythmias, especially supraventricular. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a recognized complication of overt hyperthyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism is also known to be a risk factor for development of AF. Supraventricular dysrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation, in older patients may account for some of the excess cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality described, especially because AF is known to predispose to embolic phenomena.