Humoral immunity to memory antigens and pathogens is maintained in patients with chronic kidney disease

Nadezhda A. Wall, C. Coral Dominguez-Medina, Sian E. Faustini, Charlotte N. Cook, Andrew McClean, Mark D. Jesky, Marisol Perez-Toledo, Matthew D. Morgan, Alexandra G. Richter, Charles J. Ferro, Paul Cockwell, Paul A. Moss, Ian R. Henderson, Lorraine Harper, Adam F. Cunningham

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Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of infection and poorer responses to vaccination. This suggests that CKD patients have an impaired responsiveness to all antigens, even those first encountered before CKD onset. To examine this we evaluated antibody responses against two childhood vaccine antigens, tetanus (TT) and diphtheria toxoids (DT) and two common pathogens, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SEn) in two independent cohorts consisting of age-matched individuals with and without CKD. Sera were evaluated for antigen-specific IgG titres and the functionality of antibody to SEn was assessed in a serum bactericidal assay. Surprisingly, patients with CKD and control subjects had comparable levels of IgG against TT and DT, suggesting preserved humoral memory responses to antigens encountered early in life. Lipopolysaccharide-specific IgG titres and serum bactericidal activity in patients with CKD were also not inferior to controls. CMV-specific IgG titres in seropositive CKD patients were similar or even increased compared to controls. Therefore, whilst responses to new vaccines in CKD are typically lower than expected, antibody responses to antigens commonly encountered prior to CKD onset are not. The immunodeficiency of CKD is likely characterised by failure to respond to new antigenic challenges and efforts to improve patient outcomes should be focussed here.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0195730
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 16 Apr 2018


  • Journal Article


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