High-density direct laser deposition (DLD) of CM247LC alloy: microstructure, porosity and cracks

Prveen Bidare*, Aldi Mehmeti, Amaia Jiménez, Sheng Li, Chris Garman, Stefan Dimov, Khamis Essa*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)


Nickel-based alloys are known as non-weldable materials due to their complex characteristics. Consequently, additive manufacturing of these alloys is particularly challenging. In this paper, the influence of process parameters on the porosity, crack formation and microstructure of additively manufactured CM247LC nickel-based alloy is analysed. The feasibility of the direct laser deposition (DLD) process to manufacture crack-free and low-porosity CM247LC samples is studied. CM247LC samples were built on Inconel 718 that has similar chemical composition, to form hybrid superalloy parts. It was shown that crack-free and high-density CM247LC samples can be obtained through DLD without significant substrate preheating for certain parameter combinations: laser power in the range of 800–1000 W and powder feed rates between 6 and 8 g/min. High-cost and complex preheating was avoided that was commonly reported as necessary to achieve similar densities. For hybrid parts, a large beam diameter and slow scan speeds were employed to achieve optimal conditions as it was evident from the achieved bonding between the Inconel 718 substrate and the deposited layers. It was observed that good bonding between the two materials can be obtained with laser power values between 800 and 1000 W, scanning speed higher than 300 mm/min and powder flow rates of 6–8 g/min.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8063–8074
Number of pages12
JournalThe International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Issue number11-12
Early online date7 May 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank the financial support provided by the MBDA UK Limited for the IC061 project under the MCM ITP Innovation research program. This work has been performed by the University of Birmingham in partnership with MBDA, the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) and the Direction générale de l'armement (DGA), and funded under the Materials and Components for Missiles, Innovation and Technology Partnership (MCM ITP).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Microstructure
  • Nickel-based superalloys
  • Porosity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Software
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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