Bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been shown to facilitate regeneration in multiple nonhematopoietic tissues by either generating epithelial cells or altering the inflammatory response. Depending on injury type, the predominant mechanism of epithelial lineage regeneration occurs by spontaneous cell fusion or transdifferentiation. Irrespective of the mechanism, mobilization from the BM is a prerequisite. Mechanisms by which HSCs mobilize into damaged organs are currently under scrutiny. Murine and human studies have shown that the chemokine SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 participate in the mobilization of HSCs from BM and in the migration of HSCs to injured liver. SDF-1 is a potent HSC chemoattractant and is produced by the liver. Production is increased during liver injury leading to increased HSC migration to the liver, a finding diminished by neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibodies. Additional factors have been implicated in the control of hepatic migration of HSCs such as IL-8, hepatocyte growth factor, and MMP-9. Matriceal remodeling is an essential component in HSC engraftment, and MMP-9 expression is increased in liver injury. This review focuses on the complex interaction of chemokines, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix factors required for successful migration and engraftment of HSCs into the liver.