Heart rate and energetics of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus)

Anthony Woakes, Patrick Butler, G Froget, Andreas Fahlman, G Kuntz, Y Le Maho, Y Handrich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

65 Citations (Scopus)


The main objective of this study was to determine heart rate (fH) and the energetic costs of specific behaviours of king penguins while ashore and while foraging at sea during their breeding period. In particular, an estimate was made of the energetic cost of diving in order to determine the proportion of dives that may exceed the calculated aerobic dive limit (cADL; estimated usable O-2 stores/estimated rate of oxygen consumption during diving). An implanted data logger enabled fH and diving behaviour to be monitored from 10 free-ranging king penguins during their breeding period. Using previously determined calibration equations, it was possible to estimate rate of oxygen consumption (V-O2) when the birds were ashore and during various phases of their foraging trips. Diving behaviour showed a clear diurnal pattern, with a mixture of deep (>40 m), long (>3 min) and shallow (
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3917-3926
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2004


  • aerobic dive limit
  • king penguin
  • heart rate
  • foraging
  • diving metabolism
  • Aptenodytes patagonicus
  • seabird


Dive into the research topics of 'Heart rate and energetics of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this