Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major health concern that is associated with high mortality and socioeconomic burden on both patients and healthcare authorities. This systematic review aimed to qualitatively explore the healthcare-related factors influencing the management of HIV in adult patients. Seven online databases (PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, CINAHL, PsycInfo, PsycExtra, and International Pharmaceutical Abstract) were searched. Articles published in English language between September 2000 and September 2018 were eligible for inclusion. Quality assessment tool developed by the EPPI-Centre was used to assess the quality of the included studies. A cross-case thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo 10. A total of 30 studies were included in the review. The qualitative analysis identified four major themes influencing the management of HIV: awareness of healthcare professionals (HCPs), attitudes of HCPs, lack of healthcare infrastructure, and stigma associated with HIV. The findings of this review suggest that people living with HIV are at an increased risk of experiencing poor disease management due to various healthcare-related factors. HCPs and policy makers should acknowledge the presence of these factors with the aim of providing quality care to people living with HIV.