HD 28109 hosts a trio of transiting Neptunian planets including a near-resonant pair, confirmed by ASTEP from Antarctica

Georgina Dransfield, Amaury H. M. J. Triaud, Tristan Guillot, Djamel Mekarnia, David Nesvorný, Nicolas Crouzet, Lyu Abe, Karim Agabi, Marco Buttu, Juan Cabrera, Davide Gandolfi, Maximilian N. Günther, Florian Rodler, François-Xavier Schmider, Philippe Stee, Olga Suarez, Karen A. Collins, Martín Dévora-Pajares, Steve B. Howell, Elisabeth C. MatthewsMatthew R. Standing, Keivan G. Stassun, Chris Stockdale, Samuel N. Quinn, Carl Ziegler, Ian J. M. Crossfield, Jack J. Lissauer, Andrew W. Mann, Rachel Matson, Joshua Schlieder, George Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Downloads (Pure)


We report on the discovery and characterisation of three planets orbiting the F8 star HD 28109, which sits comfortably in TESS’s continuous viewing zone. The two outer planets have periods of 56.0067±0.0003 days and 84.2597+0.0010−0.0008 days⁠, which implies a period ratio very close to that of the first-order 3:2 mean motion resonance, exciting transit timing variations (TTVs) of up to 60mins⁠. These two planets were first identified by TESS, and we identified a third planet in the TESS photometry with a period of 22.8911±0.0004 days⁠. We confirm the planetary nature of all three planetary candidates using ground-based photometry from Hazelwood, ASTEP and LCO, including a full detection of the ∼9h transit of HD 28109 c from Antarctica. The radii of the three planets are Rb=2.199+0.098−0.10 R⁠, Rc=4.23±0.11 R and Rd=3.25±0.11 R⁠; we characterise their masses using TTVs and precise radial velocities from ESPRESSO and HARPS, and find them to be Mb=18.5+9.1−7.6 M⊕⁠, Mc=7.9+4.2−3.0 M and Md=5.7+2.7−2.1 M⁠, making planet b a dense, massive planet while c and d are both under-dense. We also demonstrate that the two outer planets are ripe for atmospheric characterisation using transmission spectroscopy, especially given their position in the CVZ of JWST. The data obtained to date are consistent with resonant (librating) and non-resonant (circulating) solutions; additional observations will show whether the pair is actually locked in resonance or just near-resonant.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberstac1383
Pages (from-to)1328-1345
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
Early online date23 May 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 May 2022

Bibliographical note

19 pages, 14 figures


  • astro-ph.EP
  • planets and satellites: detection
  • planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability
  • planets and satellites: fundamental parameters


Dive into the research topics of 'HD 28109 hosts a trio of transiting Neptunian planets including a near-resonant pair, confirmed by ASTEP from Antarctica'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this