Grouted connections on offshore wind turbines: a review

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Grouted connections (GCs) have been extensively employed in offshore applications over the past decades and are widely used in offshore monopile wind turbines today. The effectiveness of the connections on monopiles was questioned recently after several substructures were reported to have insufficient performance in wind farms over Europe. This paper brings together the current practice in terms of engineering methods employed for the determination of loads acting on the structure and the numerical methods employed for the investigation of the structural behaviour of the GC.
With respect to hydrodynamic loads on monopile wind turbines, the popular linear wave theory along with the Morison equation can be employed to model normal sea states whereas higher order wave models are necessary to investigate severe events such as wave breaking. In terms of wind loads, Blade Element Momentum (BEM) proves to be advantageous with respect to computational cost and ease of implementation in simulation tools. Finally, Finite Element (FE) modelling of GCs is introduced and close attention is given to the non-linearity of the grout material and the interface contact which are considered decisive aspects for the structural analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-195
JournalProceedings of the ICE - Engineering and Computational Mechanics
Issue number4
Early online date9 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016


  • grouting
  • wind loading
  • aerodynamics of wind turbines
  • hydraulics and hydrodynamics of wind turbines


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