GPS receiver CODE bias estimation: A comparison of two methods

Anthony M. McCaffrey*, P. T. Jayachandran, D. R. Themens, R. B. Langley

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a valuable tool in the measurement and monitoring of ionospheric total electron content (TEC). To obtain accurate GPS-derived TEC, satellite and receiver hardware biases, known as differential code biases (DCBs), must be estimated and removed. The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) provides monthly averages of receiver DCBs for a significant number of stations in the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service (IGS) network. A comparison of the monthly receiver DCBs provided by CODE with DCBs estimated using the minimization of standard deviations (MSD) method on both daily and monthly time intervals, is presented. Calibrated TEC obtained using CODE-derived DCBs, is accurate to within 0.74 TEC units (TECU) in differenced slant TEC (sTEC), while calibrated sTEC using MSD-derived DCBs results in an accuracy of 1.48 TECU.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1984-1991
Number of pages8
JournalAdvances in Space Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2017


  • Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE)
  • Differential Code Bias (DCB)
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • Ionosphere
  • Total Electron Content (TEC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Geophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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