Patients and methods: Tumor samples collected from patients enrolled on Children's Oncology Group trials (1998-2017) and UK patients enrolled on malignant mesenchymal tumor and RMS2005 (1995-2016) trials were subjected to custom-capture sequencing. Mutations, indels, gene deletions, and amplifications were identified, and survival analysis was performed.
Results: DNA from 641 patients was suitable for analyses. A median of one mutation was found per tumor. In FOXO1 fusion-negative cases, mutation of any RAS pathway member was found in > 50% of cases, and 21% had no putative driver mutation identified. BCOR (15%), NF1 (15%), and TP53 (13%) mutations were found at a higher incidence than previously reported and TP53 mutations were associated with worse outcomes in both fusion-negative and FOXO1 fusion-positive cases. Interestingly, mutations in RAS isoforms predominated in infants < 1 year (64% of cases). Mutation of MYOD1 was associated with histologic patterns beyond those previously described, older age, head and neck primary site, and a dismal survival. Finally, we provide a searchable companion database (ClinOmics), containing all genomic variants, and clinical annotation including survival data.
Conclusion: This is the largest genomic characterization of clinically annotated rhabdomyosarcoma tumors to date and provides prognostic genetic features that refine risk stratification and will be incorporated into prospective trials.