Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide hormone that is produced both centrally and peripherally. Regulated by the ghrelin O-acyl transferase enzyme, ghrelin exerts its action through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, and is implicated in a diverse range of physiological processes. These implications have placed the ghrelin signaling pathway at the center of a large number of candidate gene and genome-wide studies which aim to identify the genetic basis of human heterogeneity. In this review we summarize the available data on the genetic variability of ghrelin, its receptor and its regulatory enzyme, and their association with obesity, stature, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, eating disorders, and reward seeking behavior.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Cardiovascular Diseases
- Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
- Eating Disorders
- Genome-Wide Association Study
- Models, Molecular
- Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
- Protein Isoforms
- Protein Precursors
- Receptors, Ghrelin
- Signal Transduction