Generalized anxiety and major depressive disorders, their comorbidity and hypertension in middle-aged men.

Douglas Carroll, Anna Phillips, CR Gale, GD Batty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

64 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: To examine the cross-sectional associations between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), their comorbidity, and hypertension. METHODS: Participants (n = 4180) were drawn from a cohort of men who were members of the U.S. army during the Vietnam war era. Occupational, sociodemographic, and health data were collected from military service files, telephone interviews, and medical examinations. Hypertension status was defined by the presence of one of the following: self-reports at interview of either a physician-diagnosis or taking antihypertensive medication; or an average systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mm Hg or an average diastolic blood pressure > or = 90 mm Hg at the medical examination. One-year prevalence of GAD and MDD was determined, using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition criteria. RESULTS: In separate regression models adjusting for age and then additionally for place of service, ethnicity, marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index, household income, and education grade, both GAD and MDD were related positively to hypertension. In age-adjusted and fully adjusted models comparing comorbid GAD/MDD, GAD alone, MDD alone, and neither condition, comorbidity showed the strongest relationship with hypertension. CONCLUSION: Depression has been the main focus for research on mental health and physical health outcomes. The present results suggest that future research should pay equal attention to GAD and, in particular, the comorbidity of GAD and MDD.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-9
Number of pages4
JournalPsychosomatic Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2010


  • major depression
  • fasting glucose
  • comorbidity
  • veterans
  • hypertension
  • diagnosis
  • Depressive symptoms
  • generalized anxiety disorder
  • major depressive disorder
  • type 2 diabetes


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