Gelling kinetics and in situ mineralization of alginate hydrogels: A correlative spatiotemporal characterization toolbox

Sindre H. Bjørnøy, Stefan Mandaric, David Bassett, Andreas K O Åslund, Seniz Ucar, Jens Petter Andreassen, Berit L. Strand, Pawel Sikorski*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract Due to their large water content and structural similarities to the extracellular matrix, hydrogels are an attractive class of material in the tissue engineering field. Polymers capable of ionotropic gelation are of special interest due to their ability to form gels at mild conditions. In this study we have developed an experimental toolbox to measure the gelling kinetics of alginate upon crosslinking with calcium ions. A reaction–diffusion model for gelation has been used to describe the diffusion of calcium within the hydrogel and was shown to match experimental observations well. In particular, a single set of parameters was able to predict gelation kinetics over a wide range of gelling ion concentrations. The developed model was used to predict the gelling time for a number of geometries, including microspheres typically used for cell encapsulation. We also demonstrate that this toolbox can be used to spatiotemporally investigate the formation and evolution of mineral within the hydrogel network via correlative Raman microspectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscopy. Statement of Significance Hydrogels show great promise in cell-based tissue engineering, however new fabrication and modification methods are needed to realize the full potential of hydrogel based materials. The inclusion of an inorganic phase is one such approach and is known to affect both cell-material interactions and mechanical properties. This article describes the development of a correlative experimental approach where gel formation and mineralization has been investigated with spatial and temporal resolution by applying Raman microspectroscopy, optical and electron microscopy and a reaction–diffusion modeling scheme. Modeling allows us to predict gelling kinetics for other geometries and sizes than those investigated experimentally. Our experimental system enables non-destructive study of composite hydrogel systems relevant for, but not limited to, applications within bone tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-253
Number of pages11
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Early online date3 Aug 2016
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2016


  • Alginate
  • Hydrogel
  • Modeling
  • Raman spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Gelling kinetics and in situ mineralization of alginate hydrogels: A correlative spatiotemporal characterization toolbox'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this