Gap analyses of priority wild relatives of food crop in current ex situ and in situ conservation in Indonesia

Wiguna Rahman, Joana Magos Brehm, Nigel Maxted, Jade Phillips, Aremi R. Contreras-toledo, Mariam Faraji, Mauricio Parra Quijano

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Conservation programmes are always limited by available resources. Careful planning is therefore required to increase the efficiency of conservation and gap analysis can be used for this purpose. This method was used to assess the representativeness of current ex situ and in situ conservation actions of 234 priority crop wild relatives (CWR) in Indonesia. This analysis also included species distribution modelling, the creation of an ecogeographical land characterization map, and a complementarity analysis to identify priorities area for in situ conservation and for further collecting of ex situ conservation programmes. The results show that both current ex situ and in situ conservation actions are insufficient. Sixty-six percent of priority CWRs have no recorded ex situ collections. Eighty CWRs with ex situ collections are still under-represented in the national genebanks and 65 CWRs have no presence records within the existing protected area network although 60 are predicted to exist in several protected areas according to their potential distribution models. The complementarity analysis shows that a minimum of 61 complementary grid areas (complementary based on grid cells) are required to conserve all priority taxa and 40 complementary protected areas (complementary based on existing protected areas) are required to conserve those with known populations within the existing in situ protected area network. The top ten of complementary protected areas are proposed as the initial areas for the development of CWR genetic reserves network in Indonesia. It is recommended to enhanced coordination between ex situ and in situ conservation stakeholders for sustaining the long term conservation of CWR in Indonesia. Implementation of the research recommendations will provide for the first time an effective conservation planning of Indonesia’s CWR diversity and will significantly enhance the country’s food and nutritional security.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2827-2855
Number of pages29
JournalBiodiversity and Conservation
Issue number10
Early online date6 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge The Ministry of Research and Technology of Republic Indonesia for the scholarship to W. Rahman.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).


  • Conservation
  • complementarity analysis
  • Crop wild relatives
  • ecogeographic land characterization
  • Ex situ
  • In situ
  • Gap analysis
  • Indonesia


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