Function and evolution of 'green' GSK3/Shaggy-like kinases.

Younousse Saidi, TJ Hearn, Juliet Coates

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61 Citations (Scopus)
751 Downloads (Pure)


Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins, also known as SHAGGY-like kinases, have many important cell signalling roles in animals, fungi and amoebae. In particular, GSK3s participate in key developmental signalling pathways and also regulate the cytoskeleton. GSK3-encoding genes are also present in all land plants and in algae and protists, raising questions about possible ancestral functions in eukaryotes. Recent studies have revealed that plant GSK3 proteins are actively implicated in hormonal signalling networks during development as well as in biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this review, we outline the mechanisms of Arabidopsis GSK3 action, summarize GSK3 functions in dicot and monocot flowering plants, and speculate on the possible functions of GSK3s in the earliest-evolving land plants.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-46
Number of pages8
JournalTrends in Plant Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012


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