From the regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis to bacterial growth and morphology

Athanasios Typas, Manuel Banzhaf, Carol A Gross, Waldemar Vollmer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

710 Citations (Scopus)


How bacteria grow and divide while retaining a defined shape is a fundamental question in microbiology, but technological advances are now driving a new understanding of how the shape-maintaining bacterial peptidoglycan sacculus grows. In this Review, we highlight the relationship between peptidoglycan synthesis complexes and cytoskeletal elements, as well as recent evidence that peptidoglycan growth is regulated from outside the sacculus in Gram-negative bacteria. We also discuss how growth of the sacculus is sensitive to mechanical force and nutritional status, and describe the roles of peptidoglycan hydrolases in generating cell shape and of D-amino acids in sacculus remodelling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123-36
Number of pages14
JournalNature Reviews Microbiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 28 Dec 2011


  • Amidohydrolases
  • Bacteria
  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Cell Wall
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Endopeptidases
  • Escherichia coli
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria
  • Hydrolysis
  • N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase
  • Peptidoglycan
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review


Dive into the research topics of 'From the regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis to bacterial growth and morphology'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this