Formulation engineering of water in cocoa – Butter emulsion

Antonio Sullo, Marcela Arellano-Salazar, Ian T. Norton

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15 Citations (Scopus)
1095 Downloads (Pure)


This research studied the effect of κ-carrageenan concentration and emulsifier mixture of soybean lecithin (LEC) and/or polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the physical properties of water-in-cocoa butter emulsions. Emulsions were prepared using bench scale margarine line process, consisting of a scraped surface heat exchanger and a pin stirrer. Results show that droplet size increases as the concentration of κ-carrageenan and/or LEC increases. Emulsions crystallise mainly in form V (β2), however when the concentration of κ-carrageenan increases to 1.5 wt% less stable polymorphic forms (II) were also observed. The rheological properties of the emulsions at 40 °C were mainly controlled by the concentration of LEC which causes droplets to flocculate and as consequence viscosity increases. Finally, behaviour under large deformation showed that the presence of water droplets weakens the emulsions structure, due to the reduction in the density of the cocoa butter matrix bearing the load.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100-110
JournalJournal of Food Engineering
Early online date14 Jun 2014
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014


  • Emulsion
  • Cocoa butter
  • Microstructure
  • Rheology
  • Texture
  • Particle size
  • DSC


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