Foreign Direct Investment and the Environment: A Review of the Literature

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper we review the literature that investigates the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the environment. After reviewing the theoretical literature we discuss two broad strands of research. First, the impact of environmental regulations on the choice of plant location and second, the impact of FDI on the emissions of various pollutants and the related question of whether we can observe environmental spillovers from foreign to domestic firms. Finally, we review the more recent literature on environmental outsourcing as an alternative to FDI and conclude with suggestions for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)465-487
JournalAnnual Review of Environment and Resources
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2017


  • foreign direct investment
  • environment
  • pollution haven
  • environmental outsourcing


Dive into the research topics of 'Foreign Direct Investment and the Environment: A Review of the Literature'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this