The aim of this study was to quantify the fluctuating dynamic facial asymmetry during smiling in a group of ‘normal’ adults, using three-dimensional (3D) motion facial capture technology. Fifty-four male and 54 female volunteers were recruited. Each subject was imaged using a passive markerless 3D motion capture system (DI4D). Eighteen landmarks were tracked through the 3D capture sequence. A facial asymmetry score was calculated based on either a clinically derived midline or Procrustes alignment; scores were based on the Euclidean distance between landmark pairs. Facial asymmetry scores were determined at three time points: rest, median, and maximum frame. Based on the clinically derived midline and on Procrustes alignment, the differences between male and female volunteers, as well as those at the three different time points, were not clinically significant. However, throughout a smile, facial and lip asymmetry scores increased over the duration of the smile. Fluctuating facial asymmetry exists within individuals, as well as between individuals. Procrustes superimposition and the clinically derived midline produced similar asymmetry scores and both are valid for symmetrical faces. However, with facial asymmetry, Procrustes superimposition may not be a valid measure, and the use of the clinically derived midline may be more appropriate, although this requires further investigation.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery|
|Early online date||30 Mar 2019|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2019|
- 3D motion capture
- fluctuating asymmetry