Economically viable electric vehicle lithium-ion battery recycling is increasingly needed; however routes to profitability are still unclear. We present a comprehensive, holistic techno-economic model as a framework to directly compare recycling locations and processes, providing a key tool for recycling cost optimization in an international battery recycling economy. We show that recycling can be economically viable, with cost/profit ranging from (−21.43 - +21.91) $·kWh−1 but strongly depends on transport distances, wages, pack design and recycling method. Comparing commercial battery packs, the Tesla Model S emerges as the most profitable, having low disassembly costs and high revenues for its cobalt. In-country recycling is suggested, to lower emissions and transportation costs and secure the materials supply chain. Our model thus enables identification of strategies for recycling profitability.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was carried out with funding from the Faraday Institution (faraday.ac.uk; EP/S003053/1 ). L.L. would like to thank the Faraday Institution for their support through the “Multi-scale Modeling (MSM)” project (Grant No. FIRG003 ). R.J.R.E. and V.N.-T. would like to thank the support of UK EPSRC /Faraday Institution through the research project “Recycling of Lithium-ion Batteries (ReLIB)” (Grant No. FIRG005 ).
© 2021 The Authors
- electrochemical energy storage
- energy application
- energy policy
- energy resources
- energy systems
ASJC Scopus subject areas