Filling the Gap: A Correlation between Objective and Subjective Measures of Injectability

Thomas E Robinson, Erik A B Hughes, Aniruddha Bose, Elizabeth A Cornish, Jun Y Teo, Neil M Eisenstein, Liam M Grover, Sophie C Cox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
143 Downloads (Pure)


Various injectable biomaterials are developed for the minimally invasive delivery of therapeutics. Typically, a mechanical tester is used to ascertain the force required to inject these biomaterials through a given syringe-needle system. However, currently there is no method to correlate the force measured in the laboratory to the perceived effort required to perform that injection by the end user. In this article, the injection force (F) for a variety of biomaterials, displaying a range of rheological properties, is compared with the effort scores from a 50 person panel study. The maximum injection force measured at crosshead speed 1 mm s-1 is a good proxy for injection effort, with an R2 of 0.89. This correlation leads to the following conclusions: participants can easily inject 5 mL of substance for F < 12 N; considerable effort is required to inject 5 mL for 12 N < F < 38 N; great effort is required and <5 mL can be injected for 38 N < F < 64 N; and materials are entirely non-injectable for F > 64 N. These values may be used by developers of injectable biomaterials to make decisions about formulations and needle sizes early in the translational process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1901521
JournalAdvanced Healthcare Materials
Issue number5
Early online date24 Jan 2020
Publication statusPublished - 4 Mar 2020

Bibliographical note

© 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


  • alginate
  • biomaterials
  • cement
  • injectability
  • testing methods

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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