Fast Frequency Support From Wind Turbine Systems by Arresting Frequency Nadir Close to Settling Frequency

Xianxian Zhao, Ying Xue, Xiao-ping Zhang

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The recent power cut incident in the UK on 9th August 2019 indicated that frequency control to raise frequency nadir and eliminate frequency second dip is highly desirable for power grids with high penetration of wind energy. This paper proposes a fast frequency support scheme for wind turbine systems (WTSs) that can enable frequency nadir to be significantly raised and close to the settling frequency and eliminate frequency second dip. In the proposed frequency support scheme, in order to achieve similar
frequency support performance and ensure stability of WTSs under varying wind speeds, different levels of wind power penetration and system conditions, an adaptive gain, which is a function of real-time rotor speed and wind power penetration level, is proposed. In the proposed scheme, rotor speeds of WTSs are proposed not to be recovered to the optimal operating points during the primary frequency control, but recovered during the secondary frequency control. Simulation results on the IEEE two-area power system with a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farm and the IEEE 39-bus power system with permanent magnetic synchronous generator (PMSG)-based wind farms using real-time digital simulator (RTDS) and Dymola are
presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)191-202
Journal IEEE Open Access Journal of Power and Energy
Publication statusPublished - 25 May 2020


  • Wind turbine system
  • fast frequency support
  • frequency second dip
  • frequency nadir
  • rate of change of frequency (ROCOF)
  • primary frequency control


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