For axi-symmetrically notched tension bars [Dyson, B.F., Loveday, M.S., 1981, Creep Fracture in Nimonic 80A under Tri-axial Tensile Stressing, In: Pouter A.R.S., Hayhurst, D.R. (Eds.), Creep in Structures, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 406-421] show two types of damage propagation are shown: for low stress, failure propagates from the outside notch surface to the centre-line; and for high stress, failure propagates from the centre-line to the outside notch surface. The objectives of the paper are to: identify the physics of the processes controlling global failure modes; and, describe the global behaviour using physics-based constitutive equations. Two sets of constitutive equations are used to model the softening which takes place in tertiary creep of Nimonic 80A at 750 degrees C. Softening by multiplication of mobile dislocations is firstly combined, for low stress, with softening due to nucleation controlled creep constrained cavity growth; and secondly combined, for high stress, with softening due to continuum void growth. The Continuum Damage Mechanics, CDM, Finite Element Solver DAMAGE XX has been used to study notch creep fracture. Low stress notch behaviour is accurately predicted provided that the constitutive equations take account of the effect of stress level on creep ductility. High stress notch behaviour is accurately predicted from a normalized inverse cavity spacing d/2l = 6, and an initial normalized cavity radius r(hi)/l = 3.16 x 10(-3), where 2l is the cavity spacing, and d is the grain size; however, the constants in the strain rate equation required recalibration against high stress notch data. A void nucleation mechanism is postulated for high stress behaviour which involves decohesion where slip bands intersect second phase grain boundary particles. Both equation sets accurately predict experimentally observed global failure modes. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- notched bars
- creep rupture
- nucleation controlled and continuum cavity growth