Factor validation and Rasch analysis of the individual recovery outcomes counter (I.ROC)

Geoffrey L. Dickens, Bridey Rudd, Nutmeg Hallett, Robin M. Ion, Scott M. Hardie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
200 Downloads (Pure)


Objective: The individual recovery outcomes counter is a 12-item personal recovery self-assessment tool for adults with mental health problems. Although widely used across Scotland, limited research into its psychometric properties has been conducted. We tested its’ measurement properties to ascertain the suitability of the tool for continued use in its’ present form.

Materials and methods: Anonymised data from the assessments of 1743 adults using mental health services in Scotland were subject to tests based on principles of Rasch measurement theory, principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.

Results: Rasch analysis revealed that the six-point response structure of the individual recovery outcomes counter (I.ROC) was problematic. Re-scoring on a four-point scale revealed well-ordered items that measure a single, recovery-related construct, and has acceptable fit statistics. Confirmatory factor analysis supported this. Scale items covered around 75% of the recovery continuum; those individuals least far along the continuum were least well addressed.

Conclusions: A modified tool worked well for many, but not all, service users. The study suggests specific developments are required if the I.ROC is to maximise its’ utility for service users and provide meaningful data for service providers.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalDisability and Rehabilitation
Early online date11 Sept 2017
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 Sept 2017


  • validity
  • recovery
  • Mental health
  • factor analysis
  • Rasch measurement theory


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