Extrafollicular antibody responses

Ian MacLennan, Kai-Michael Toellner, AF Cunnigham, Karine Serre, DMY Sze, E Zuniga, MC Cook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

407 Citations (Scopus)


In adaptive antibody responses, B cells are induced to grow either in follicles where they form germinal centers or in extrafollicular foci as plasmablasts. Extrafollicular growth typically occurs in the medullary cords of lymph nodes and in foci in the red pulp of the spleen. It is not a feature of secondary lymphoid tissue associated with the internal epithelia of the body. All types of naïve and memory B cells can be recruited into extrafollicular responses. These responses are associated with immunoglobulin class switching but, at the most, only low-level hypermutation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-18
Number of pages11
JournalImmunological Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2003


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