INTRODUCTION: Odontoblasts play an important role in post-developmental control of mineralization in response to external stimuli in the tooth. The present study investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major bacterial cell wall component, influenced mineralization in a murine odontoblast-like cell (OLC) line and the related intracellular signaling pathways involved.
METHODS: Alizarin red S staining was used to assess mineralized nodule formation in OLCs in response to LPS. The effects of LPS on gene expression of odontoblastic markers were investigated by using quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The potential involvement of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways in the mineralized nodule formation, and mRNA expression of several odontoblastic markers of OLCs induced by LPS was assessed by using alizarin red S staining and quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, LPS stimulation resulted in phosphorylation of protein that was determined by Western blot analysis.
RESULTS: OLCs showed reduced mineralized nodule formation and several odontoblastic markers expression in response to LPS exposure. Furthermore, inhibition of TLR4, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and PI3K/Akt signaling noticeably antagonized LPS-mediated mineralization in OLCs. However, p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and NF-κB signaling inhibitors did not affect LPS-mediated mineralization in OLCs. Notably, LPS treatment resulted in a time-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and PI3K/Akt in OLCs, which was abrogated by their specific inhibitors.
CONCLUSIONS: LPS decreased mineralization in OLCs via TLR4, ERK MAPK, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, but not p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or NF-κB signaling.
- Journal Article
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
- mitogen-activated protein kinase