Extra-retinal signals support the estimation of 3D motion

Andrew Welchman, JM Harris, E Brenner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)


In natural settings, our eyes tend to track approaching objects. To estimate motion, the brain should thus take account of eye movements, perhaps using retinal cues (retinal slip of static objects) or extra-retinal signals (motor commands). Previous work suggests that extra-retinal ocular vergence signals do not support the perceptual judgments. Here, we re-evaluate this conclusion, studying motion judgments based on retinal slip and extra-retinal signals. We find that (1) each cue can be sufficient, and, (2) retinal and extra-retinal signals are combined, when estimating motion-in-depth. This challenges the accepted view that observers are essentially blind to eye vergence changes. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)782-789
Number of pages8
JournalVision Research
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2009


  • Binocular disparity
  • Motion-in-depth
  • Eye movements
  • Extra-retinal


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