The aim of this study was to determine which Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) genes had significantly altered expression following 2-36 h of infestation by the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Six biological replicates were performed for both control and treatment at each time point, allowing rigorous statistical analysis of any changes. Only two genes showed altered expression after 2 h (one up- and one down-regulated) while two were down-regulated and twenty three were up-regulated at 36 h. The transcript annotation allowed classification of the significantly altered genes into a number of classes, including those involved in cell wall modification, carbon metabolism and signalling. Additionally, a number of genes were implicated in oxidative stress and defence against other pathogens. Five genes could not currently be assigned any function. The changes in gene expression are discussed in relation to current models of plant-insect interactions.