The conventional single point incremental forming (SPIF) process is unable to perform high geometrical accuracy and formability for the Ti-6AI-4V alloy sheet. In response, this article has proposed a reliable high-frequency induction heating-assisted SPIF system. Rapid localised heating (600 ℃ and 700 ℃) was integrated with a synchronized Inconel 625 Nickel alloy ball-roller forming tool to achieve high geometric accuracy and surface quality. This article also produced new insights into correlating mechanical and microstructural properties in SPIF at 600 ℃ and 700 ℃. By investigating the mechanical properties (forming force, geometric accuracy, thickness profile), an explicit finite element (FE) simulation was established to predict the results. The output strain history from the FE simulations was used as input and integrated with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and micro-hardness characterisations, to form a constitutive model (Arrhenius model) to calculate the Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z-parameter). The grain size and micro-hardness experimental results were correlated with Z-parameter calculation to predict the microstructural development at the initial, middle, and final stages of the deformation process. The mechanical results revealed that the 700℃ experiment performed enhanced geometric accuracy and thickness profile, with a reduced forming force. However, the surface quality is reduced as the lubricant dissipated rapidly, while the ball-roller tool effectively compensated for this behaviour by reducing the friction. At the microstructural level, 600℃ revealed strong strain hardening and grain deformation, and 700℃ revealed better grain refinement by dynamic recovery (DRV) and dynamic recrystallisation (DRX). A proportional relationship between Z parameters and grain size and a low-high-low micro-hardness profile was proposed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was funded by the Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham . We thank Dr Chloe Chen for her linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript. A special appreciation to Wanpeng Li from Xinyu Technology Development Company Limited for EBSD samples preparation.
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.
- Hot Single Point Incremental Forming
- Deformation behaviour
- Finite Element analysis
- Constitutive model
- Zener-Hollomon parameter
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ceramics and Composites
- Computer Science Applications
- Metals and Alloys
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering