Examining the influence of the parent-initiated and coach-created motivational climates upon athletes' perfectionistic cognitions.

Paul Appleton, HK Hall, AP Hill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)


The aims of this study are threefold. First, we investigate the influence of the parent-initiated motivational climate upon elite junior athletes' perfectionistic cognitions. Second, we examine whether the coach-created motivational climate predicts additional variance in elite junior athletes' perfectionistic cognitions beyond the effects associated with the parent-initiated motivational climate. Third, we test the moderating role of athletes' gender and age in the relationship between the parent-initiated and coach-created motivational climates and athletes' perfectionistic cognitions. A total of 190 elite junior athletes (mean age 15.2 years, s = 1.5, range 10-18) completed the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (White & Duda, 1993), the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (Newton, Duda, & Yin, 2000), and the Perfectionistic Cognitions Inventory (Flett, Hewitt, Blankstein, & Gray, 1998). Regression analyses revealed that mother- and father-initiated worry-conducive climates, the father-initiated success-without-effort climate, and the coach-created performance motivational climate predicted male athletes' perfectionistic cognitions. Female athletes' perfectionistic cognitions were predicted by the mother-initiated worry-conducive climate, father-initiated learning-enjoyment climate, and both dimensions of the coach-created climate. Finally, athletes' gender emerged as a significant moderator of the mother-initiated worry-conducive climate and athletes' perfectionistic cognitions relationship. Findings confirm that the parent-initiated motivational climate is a significant predictor of athletes' perfectionism-related thoughts, and provide initial support for the influence of the coach-created motivation climate over children's perfectionistic cognitions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)661-71
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2011


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