Examining hidden coercion at state borders: why carrier sanctions cannot be justified

Tendayi Bloom, Verena Risse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
101 Downloads (Pure)


Sanctions placed upon airlines and other operators transporting persons without the required paperwork are called ‘carrier sanctions’. They constitute a key example of how border control mechanisms are currently being outsourced, privatized, delegated, and moved from the border itself to new physical locations. These practices can lead to a phenomenon referred to in this paper as ‘hidden coercion’. This paper argues that, while hidden coercion is commonplace in the reality of migration policy in most states, it is so far neglected in theoretical discussions of state coercion. Moreover, the discussion of carrier sanctions demonstrates that this neglect is problematic, since hidden coercion is not justifiable even within a framework that legitimizes state border coercion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-82
Number of pages17
JournalEthics and Global Politics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 28 May 2014


  • Coercion
  • Carrier Sanctions
  • Border Control
  • Justice
  • Migration
  • political theory


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