Et-Moone (ميانة) versus Wasta (واسطة): understanding the concept of Et-Moone-based Wasta

Ibrahim Abosag, Pervez N Ghauri

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Most studies on business relationships in the Middle East have predominantly focused on the key concepts of Et-Moone (ميانة) and Wasta (واسطة). Such focus on these two concepts raises the questions about the relationship, if any, between these two concepts. Surprisingly, there has been no study that compares and contrasts the two concepts. Hence, the literature lacks understanding on the connections between these concepts. Do they occur in isolation from each other? Or do they overlap? Or do these concepts complement each other? This paper is aiming to answer the abovementioned questions. To do this, we use the theory of social capital, networks theory and social exchange theory. Our theoretical evaluation and comparison of both concepts enabled us to identify areas of differences and overlapping. Thus, and in addition to the differentiation between the two concepts, we advance the current literature by generating new understanding around the new concept of Et-Moone-based Wasta and their connection to social exchange and network theories.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)88-95
JournalIndustrial Marketing Management
Early online date22 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Et-Moone
  • Et-Moone-based Wasta
  • Network theory
  • Theory of social capital
  • Wasta

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Marketing


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