Objective : To establish the prevalence among women of primary Sjogren's syndrome (PSS) in Birmingham, UK. Methods : Eight hundred and forty-six female Caucasians from two general practitioner lists were invited to complete a questionnaire that included a screening question on dry eyes and mouth. Individuals who responded positively were evaluated further. Results : Overall, 65% of individuals who were sent a questionnaire responded. Two had possible PSS, but were negative for anti-Ro/La antibodies. Our estimates of the prevalence of PSS ranged from <0.1% up to 0.4%, depending on the assumptions used. Conclusion : Our data support previous studies suggesting a prevalence of PSS in the community of 0.1-0.6% rather than those suggesting a higher figure.