Emerging therapies and their delivery for treating age-related macular degeneration

Chloe N Thomas*, Dawn A Sim, Wen Hwa Lee, Nada Alfahad, Andrew D Dick, Alastair Denniston, Lisa J Hill*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the Western world and is characterised in its latter stages by retinal cell death and neovascularisation and earlier stages with the loss of parainflammatory homeostasis. Patients with neovascular AMD (nAMD) are treated with frequent intraocular injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies, which are not only unpopular with patients but carry risks of sight-threatening complications. A minority of patients are unresponsive with no alternative treatment available, and some patients who respond initially eventually develop a tolerance to treatment. New therapeutics with improved delivery methods and sustainability of clinical effects are required, in particular for non-neovascular AMD (90% of cases and no current approved treatments). There are age-related and disease-related changes that occur which can affect ocular drug delivery. Here, we review the latest emerging therapies for AMD, their delivery routes and implications for translating to clinical practice. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed issue on Inflammation, Repair and Ageing. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v179.9/issuetoc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1908-1937
Number of pages30
JournalBritish Journal of Pharmacology
Issue number9
Early online date26 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was funded by Fight for Sight UK (ref: 5093/5094). The figures were created with BioRender.com

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.


  • age-related macular degeneration
  • anti-VEGF
  • complement
  • drug delivery
  • immunotherapy
  • ocular disease
  • retina

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology


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