Effects of Nozzle Diameter on Diesel Spray Flames: a numerical study using an Eulerian Stochastic Field Method

Kar Mun Pang*, Mehdi Jangi, Xue Song Bai, Jesper Schramm, Jens Honore Walther

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
140 Downloads (Pure)


The present numerical study aims to assess the performance of an Eulerian Stochastic Field (ESF) model in simulating spray flames produced by three fuel injectors with different nozzle diameters of 100 μm, 180 μm and 363 μm. A comparison to the measurements shows that although the simulated ignition delay times are consistently overestimated, the relative differences remain below 28%. Furthermore, the change of the averaged pressure rise with respect to the variation of nozzle diameter is captured by the model. The simulated flame lift-off lengths also agree with the measurements, with a maximum relative difference of 13%. The spray flame produced by a larger nozzle diameter has a fuel-richer premixed core region despite the longer lift-of length, indicating that the higher fueling rate used with the larger nozzle diameter is a more dominating factor than the lift-off length is in influencing the air entrainment into the upstream of the spray flames. In addition, the simulated normalised flame lengths are found to decrease when the nozzle diameters increase. These predictions are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observation. This work proves that the ESF model can serve as an important tool for the simulation of spray flames in marine diesel engines, where fuel injectors with different nozzle diameters are applied for pilot and main injections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1028-1033
Number of pages6
JournalEnergy Procedia
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017
Event9th International Conference on Applied Energy: ICAE2017 - Cardiff, United Kingdom
Duration: 21 Aug 201724 Aug 2017


  • diesel spray flame
  • Eulerian Stochastic Fields
  • flame length
  • nozzle hole diameter
  • turbulent combustion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy(all)


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