This paper presents experimental measurements and computational predictions of surface and endwall heat transfer for a high-pressure (HP) nozzle guide vane (NGV) operating as part of a full HP turbine stage in an annular rotating turbine facility, with and without inlet temperature distortion (hotstreaks). A detailed aerodynamic survey of the vane surface is also presented. The test turbine was the unshrouded MT1 turbine, installed in the Turbine Test Facility (previously called Isentropic Light Piston Facility) at QinetiQ, Farnborough UK. This is a short duration facility, which simulates engine representative M, Re, non-dimensional speed and gas-to-wall temperature ratio at the turbine inlet. The facility has recently been upgraded to incorporate an advanced second-generation combustor simulator, capable of simulating well-defined, aggressive temperature profiles in both the radial and circumferential directions. This work forms part of the pan-European research programme, TATEF II. Measurements of HP vane and endwall heat transfer obtained with inlet temperature distortion are compared with results for uniform inlet conditions. Steady and unsteady CFD predictions have also been conducted on vane and endwall surfaces, using the Rolls-Royce CFD code HYDRA to complement the analysis of experimental results. The heat transfer measurements presented in this paper are the first of their kind in the respect that the temperature distortion is representative of an extreme cycle point measured in the engine situation, and was simulated with good periodicity and with well defined boundary conditions in the test turbine.