Effect of self-monitoring of blood pressure on diagnosis of hypertension during higher-risk pregnancy: the BUMP 1 randomized clinical trial

BUMP Investigators

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Importance: Inadequate management of elevated blood pressure (BP) is a significant contributing factor to maternal deaths. Self-monitoring of BP in the general population has been shown to improve the diagnosis and management of hypertension; however, little is known about its use in pregnancy.

Objective: To determine whether self-monitoring of BP in higher-risk pregnancies leads to earlier detection of pregnancy hypertension.

Design, Setting, and Participants: Unblinded, randomized clinical trial that included 2441 pregnant individuals at higher risk of preeclampsia and recruited at a mean of 20 weeks' gestation from 15 hospital maternity units in England between November 2018 and October 2019. Final follow-up was completed in April 2020.

Interventions: Participating individuals were randomized to either BP self-monitoring with telemonitoring (n = 1223) plus usual care or usual antenatal care alone (n = 1218) without access to telemonitored BP.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was time to first recorded hypertension measured by a health care professional.

Results: Among 2441 participants who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 33 [5.6] years; mean gestation, 20 [1.6] weeks), 2346 (96%) completed the trial. The time from randomization to clinic recording of hypertension was not significantly different between individuals in the self-monitoring group (mean [SD], 104.3 [32.6] days) vs in the usual care group (mean [SD], 106.2 [32.0] days) (mean difference, -1.6 days [95% CI, -8.1 to 4.9]; P = .64). Eighteen serious adverse events were reported during the trial with none judged as related to the intervention (12 [1%] in the self-monitoring group vs 6 [0.5%] in the usual care group).

Conclusions and Relevance: Among pregnant individuals at higher risk of preeclampsia, blood pressure self-monitoring with telemonitoring, compared with usual care, did not lead to significantly earlier clinic-based detection of hypertension.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03334149.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1656-1665
Number of pages10
JournalJAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2022


  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension/diagnosis
  • Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy, High-Risk


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