Effect of carbon on microstructure and mechanical properties of a eutectoid beta titanium alloy

Ming Chu, Xinhua Wu, Ian Jones, Michael Loretto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The influence of carbon addition on the aging response of quenched Ti-13Cr (wt%) has been investigated using hardness tests, tensile tests, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It has been found that carbon refines beta grain size, leads to fine and homogenous alpha precipitation and reduces grain boundary alpha. The carbon addition accelerates the rate at which hardening occurs during aging and increases the peak hardness of the aged samples. A significant improvement in room temperature tensile strength and ductility has also been achieved in the carbon-containing alloy after ageing at 500 degrees C. The effects of carbon on the ageing response appear to be attributed to dislocations introduced by carbides during quenching, elastic strain created in the matrix by carbides and gettering effect of Ti2C carbides. The influence of each of those mechanisms has been demonstrated through experiments and the factors giving rise to the improvements in properties are also discussed in terms of the microstructural observations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)220-224
Number of pages5
JournalRare Metal Materials and Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2006


  • carbon
  • microstructure
  • mechanical properties
  • beta titanium


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