OBJECTIVES: Create and evaluate the effectiveness of a structured education program in children and young people (CYP) with type 1 diabetes using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).
DESIGN AND METHODS: Step 1: CGM devices were evaluated for predetermined criteria using a composite score. Step 2: The education program was developed following review of international structured education guidance, dynamic glucose management (DynamicGM) literature, award-winning diabetes educators' websites, and CGM user feedback. Step 3: Program effectiveness was assessed at six months by change in time below range (TBR) (<3.9mmol/L), time in range (TIR) (3.9-10.0mmol/L), time above range level 2 (TAR2) (>13.9mmol/L), severe hypoglycemia and HbA1c using a paired T-test. A DynamicGM score was developed to assess proactive glucose management. Factors predicting TBR and TIR were assessed using regression analysis.
RESULTS: Dexcom G6 was chosen for integrated CGM (iCGM) status and highest composite score (29/30). Progressive DynamicGM strategies were taught through five sessions delivered over two months. Fifty CYP (23 male) with a mean (±SD) age and diabetes duration of 10.2 (±4.8) and 5.2 (±3.7) years respectively, who completed the education program were prospectively evaluated. Evaluation at six months showed a significant reduction in TBR (10.4% to 2.1%, p<.001), TAR2 (14.1% to 7.3%, p<.001), HbA1c [7.4 to 7.1% (57.7 to 53.8 mmol/mol), p<.001] and severe hypoglycemic episodes (10 to 1, p<.05); TIR increased (47.4% to 57.0%, p<.001). Number of Dexcom followers (p<.05) predicted reduction in TBR and DynamicGM score (p<.001) predicted increased TIR.
CONCLUSION: Teaching DynamicGM strategies successfully improves TIR and reduces hypoglycemia.
- continuous glucose monitoring
- structured education
- pediatric type 1
- cost analysis