Dual stimuli-sensitive carrageenan-based formulation for additive manufacturing

Azarmidokht Gholamipour-Shirazi*, Ian T. Norton, Tom Mills

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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The design and development of controlled release systems of molecules of interest (nutrients, flavors, and drugs) have attracted significant attention over several years. Herein, we report a formulation of dual temperature and electro responsive κ- and ι-carrageenan based hydrogel for efficient food material and drug delivery. The microstructure and the thermal behavior of the hydrogel were characterized. The in-vitro drug release from the hydrogel was also studied. Using this carrageenan-based formulation and folic acid as the drug model, a high drug loading, and a sustained release because of either electric field or temperature were observed. In principle, the proposed formulation does not rely on 3D printing to perform its function; however, it adds to the feedstocks for 3D printing in the food and pharmaceutical industries. For the future, this could allow potentially more complex smart structures to be created from this material, further tuning release behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)370-379
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Early online date24 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council [grant number EP/N024818/1].


  • 3D printing
  • Drug delivery
  • Polyelectrolyte
  • Responsive biopolymer
  • Smart hydrogels
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Time Factors
  • Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
  • Folic Acid/pharmacology
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional
  • Carrageenan/chemistry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy(all)
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry


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