Dual-injection: The flexible, bi-fuel concept for spark-ignition engines fuelled with various gasoline and biofuel blends

X Wu, Ritchie Daniel, Guohong Tian, Hongming Xu, Z Huang, D Richardson

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132 Citations (Scopus)


Dual-injection strategies in spark-ignition engines allow the in-cylinder blending of two different fuels at any blend ratio, when simultaneously combining port fuel injection (PFI) and direct-injection (DI). Either fuel can be used as the main fuel, depending on the engine demand and the fuel availability. This paper presents the preliminary investigation of such a flexible. bi-fuel concept using a single cylinder spark-ignition research engine. Gasoline has been used as the PFI fuel, while various mass fractions of gasoline, ethanol and 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) have been used in DI. The control of the excess air ratio during the in-cylinder mixing of two different fuels was realized using the cross-over theory of the carbon monoxide and oxygen emissions concentrations. The dual-injection results showed how the volumetric air flow rate, total input energy and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) increases with deceasing PFI mass fraction, regardless of the DI fuel. The indicated efficiency increases when using any ethanol fraction in DI and results in higher combustion and fuel conversion efficiencies compared to gasoline. Increasing the DMF mass fraction in DI reduces the combustion duration more significantly than with increased fractions of ethanol or gasoline in DI. The hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions mostly reduce when using any gasoline or ethanol fraction in DI. When using DMF, the HC emissions reduce, but the NO and CO2 emissions increase. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2305-2314
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Energy
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2011


  • Biofuel
  • Dual-injection
  • Cross-over theory
  • Bi-fuel
  • 2,5-Dimethylfuran
  • Ethanol


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