A novel design of a dual-band antenna with integrated filtering performance is proposed. A low-profile aperture-coupled U-slot patch antenna is employed for the dual-band operation with a uniform polarization, which is fed by a dual-mode stub-loaded resonator (SLR). The U-slot patch works as a dual-mode resonator of the dual-band filter as well as the radiation element. The odd- and even-modes of the SLR are coupled and tuned with the U-slot patch, generating two second-order operation bands at 3.6 and 5.2 GHz. Compared with the traditional patch antenna, the proposed antenna exhibits improved bandwidth and frequency selectivity. In addition, the bandwidths can be controlled by adjusting the coupling strength between the SLR and the patch. Furthermore, the higher order harmonics can be suppressed over a broadband without increasing the footprint of the design. The measured and simulated results agree well with each other, showing excellent performance in terms of impedance matching, bandwidths, second-order filtering, out-of-band rejection, cross-polarization discrimination, and gains at both the bands.