Histologically it is nearly impossible to distinguish the dedifferentiated component of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma from undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of bone when the low-grade cartilaginous component is absent. Previous studies have revealed that isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 mutations are present in a significant number of cartilaginous tumors including the majority of conventional chondrosarcoma and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. These mutations have not been studied in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas of bone. We sought to investigate whether an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation signature could be used as a clinically diagnostic marker for the distinction of dedifferentiated component of chondrosarcoma from undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of bone. Sixty-eight bone tumor cases, including 31 conventional chondrosarcomas, 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas, and 14 undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas of bone, were collected for IDH1/2 mutation analysis either using the Qiagen IDH1/2 RGQ PCR Kit or using whole exome sequencing. IDH1/2 mutations were detected in 87% (20/23) of dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas and 30% (6/20) of conventional chondrosarcomas. No mutations were detected in the IDH1/2 codon 132 or codon 172 among 14 UPS of bone. Identification of IDH1 or IDH2 mutations supports the diagnosis of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma rather than undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of bone while also providing some insight into the pathogenesis of these two lesions.
- Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma
- Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) of bone