Development and evaluation of smoke-free or tobacco-free policies in university settings: A systematic scoping review

Marco Bardus, Nour El Boukhari, Rima Nakkash*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
80 Downloads (Pure)


We conducted a systematic scoping review to map the available evidence on smoke-free or tobacco-free (SF/TF) university policies globally. We specifically looked at (i) how policies were developed and communicated and (ii) what indicators were used to evaluate their impact. We searched for peer-reviewed literature, published up to January 2020, across 10 multi-disciplinary databases. We followed a duplicate, independent data selection, and charting process. We inductively categorized the studies according to the research design and objective of 'process' and 'impact evaluation'. We identified 75 unique studies across 23 countries conducted between 1993 and 2019. Most studies were conducted in the United States (46/75, 61.3%), were based on quantitative research design and focused on impact evaluations; a third (n ¼ 28) reported both process and impact evaluations (37.3%). Community engagement and multi-channel communication strategies were mostly used to disseminate SF/ TF policies. The impact was determined by a wide range of indicators for knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to policies. There is a mature, relevant body of literature describing the development and evaluation of SF/TF policies in universities. Future reviews could quantify the impact of the bans and may consider process indicators as moderating factors to explain the potential heterogeneity of results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-351
Number of pages46
JournalHealth Education Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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