Destination image formation: Towards a holistic approach

Hidayet Kislali, Mihalis Kavaratzis*, Michael Saren

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


This article develops a holistic framework of destination image formation capturing the dynamic nature of the image and incorporating information sources and socio-cultural factors. We combine a focused literature review with the findings of an empirical investigation on the image of Turkey. Utilizing the innovative combination of repertory grid technique, scenario analysis, and online information search, we conducted 32 qualitative interviews with U.K.-based, non-Turkish participants. The study shows the necessity for a holistic view of destination image and clarifies the dynamic nature of the image by showing how it is transformed through the information flow from traditional and online sources.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)266-276
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Tourism Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


  • destination image
  • destination image formation
  • repertory grid technique
  • socio-cultural factors
  • Turkey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation


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